PERENCANAAN PEMBANGUNAN DI PAPUA DAN BONUS DEMOGRAFI 2020 (DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN PAPUA AND DEMOGRAPHIC BONUS 2020)

Kristian Hariyono Putro

Abstract


Demographic change and rapid modernization that resulted in the displacement and dislocation of indigenous Papuan, has been stimulating their antipathy and demand for independence. Better educated settlers have dominated the growing market-economy and sidelined local people from the benefits of economics and welfare. Large scale flows of migration have also drive a sense of identity being wrenched among Papuans. Together these processes have given rise to a collective perception that Papuans are facing a serious threat over their demographic and cultural survival. On the other hand, it was projected that in 2020s, lower fertility rate policy will bring opportunity to Indonesia experiencing ‘demographic bonus’. This essay will focus on Papua Island due to its problems complexity in many sectors that arise along with demographic change. Using secondary data of population census 2010, this essay adopts comparation method to find demographic composition in Papua and analyze the data descriptively. In conclusion, there is inequality in Papua’s demographic composition which could challenge the opportunity of demographic bonus 2020. This essay recommends The government to revitalize family planning program which focus on women and girls participation to reach 2.1 fertility rates. The government should also execute policies which aimed to increase access of indigenous Papuans to basic services such as education and health facilities.

Abstrak

Perubahan demografi dan cepatnya modernisasi yang mengakibatkan tergusurnya penduduk asli Papua telah memicu antipati serta tuntutan untuk merdeka. Para pendatang dengan pendidikan yang lebih baik mendominasi pasar ekonomi dan dalam prosesnya menyisihkan penduduk lokal dari keuntungan ekonomi dan kesejahteraan. Perpindahan penduduk dalam skala besar yang disebut ‘program transmigrasi’ ke Papua juga mendorong timbulnya perasaan identitas yang terenggut diantara penduduk asli. Seluruh proses tersebut membangun persepsi bersama bahwa mereka menghadapi pemusnahan ras, atau paling tidak ancaman serius atas kelangsungan demografi dan budaya mereka. Di sisi lain, diprediksikan bahwa kebijakan penurunan tingkat kelahiran akan membawa kesempatan bagi Indonesia mengalami ‘bonus demografi’ pada tahun 2020-an. Esai ini akan fokus ke Papua karena kompleksitas masalahnya di berbagai bidang seperti ekonomi, pendidikan serta kesehatan yang timbul seiring perubahan demografi. Memanfaatkan data sekunder dari Sensus Penduduk terakhir pada tahun 2010 yang diolah dengan program Stata, esai ini menggunakan metode komparasi untuk mengetahui perbandingan komposisi demografi di Papua dan menganalisa secara deskriptif sumber-sumber data terkait. Sebagai simpulan, memang terdapat ketimpangan dalam komposisi demografi masyarakat Papua yang dapat menghambat kesempatan menikmati bonus demografi 2020. Esai ini menyarankan agar pemerintah merevitalisasi program keluarga berencana yang fokus kepada partisipasi perempuan untuk mencapai rasio 2,1 kelahiran per perempuan. Pemerintah juga hendaknya membuat kebijakan yang ditujukan untuk meningkatkan akses masyarakat asli Papua ke pelayanan dasar seperti pendidikan dan fasilitas kesehatan.


Keywords


Bonus demografi; tingkat kelahiran; ketimpangan; IPM; migrasi; keluarga berencana; Demographic bonus; fertility rate

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.28986/jtaken.v2i1.37

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